I would recommend starting printing with PLA first. It's more forgiving than PETG and ASA, and is much stronger than people make it seem. Especially the PLA+ variants a lot of brands have now. I use eSun PLA+ almost exclusively, and there are parts on my Goblin made of it that still look brand new, like adapters to go from the wing to the DF-supplied uprights. PETG and ASA are great, don't get me wrong, but you don't have to start there to get usable and easy to print parts. After getting used to PLA+, I have never felt the need to move on to PETG or ASA. Going up to ABS will require a more stout heater setup and enclosure to keep the heat/fumes contained.
If you want an enclosed cube-style printer, the Hypercube or Hypercube Evo are great designs to start with, and the designer has great documentation. I just recommend confirming the size of the actual build area before committing to extrusion cuts. The bed size is pretty standard around 220mm square for that size printer, but a lot of the cubes have limited Z travel due to how much is packed inside the cube...this can be easily changed by just cutting your vertical extrusions longer. But they are very fast due to a low weight printer head, and can be made very quiet with good stepper drivers. My loudest part is the power supply fan. These printers are also very modular since they're built around off-the-shelf parts. So upgrading is a cinch, and there's flexibility to put things where you want instead of what the default build does. You'll also need to program the firmware by making some changes in the configuration files, but this is also pretty easy if you're comfortable with following directions.
Prusa-style printers seem to be the most common for hobbyists. The Ender 3 is many people's first foray into printing, and it was mine too. I used it to make all the parts when I built the Hypercube! It can be picked up very cheap because so many retailers carry it and it often goes on sale. I've seen it as low as under a hundred dollars. If that were the only style printer you used, you'd get fantastic stuff. Plus the newer Ender designs like that conveyor belt one are really creative, and give you a ton of bang for your buck.